N.T.WRONG

Contains the archives of the N.T.Wrong blog, April 2008-January 2009

Early Judeo-Christian texts

People are often asking me: how can I find out about early Jewish and Christian religion? The answer is simple. Read what they wrote. Read them deeply and often.

The following list of texts is divided between the periods ca. 400 BC – ca. AD 50 and ca. AD 50-300. As hardly anything in these periods can be precisely dated, this involves great guesswork and approximations. The list of texts is subdivided according to my genre and provenance classifications, for convenience of use. As many of these works cross genres, and even create new genres, some of the classifications are over-generalizations and occasionally I’ve listed works in more than one classification. In other words, the classifications are highly debatable or inadequate, and you might just want to ignore them. I’m working at making a more comprehensive list, but this is ‘fairly comprehensive’. Tell me what I’ve missed. There are no inscriptions in the list, yet, only texts derived from scrolls and codices.

If you want to read them in English translation, I suggest the following books as a starter:

    - The New Revised Standard Verson of the Bible with Apocrypha/Deuterocanonical books
    – F. García Martínez, The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated: The Qumran Texts in English, tr. W. G. E. Watson (2nd edn.; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1996).
    – James H. Charlesworth, ed., The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha (2 Vols; New York: Doubleday, 1983).
    – Wilhelm Schneemelcher, New Testament Apocrypha. Translated by R. McL. Wilson (2 Vols; Cambridge: James Clark; Louisville: Westminster / John Knox Press, 1991).
    – James M. Robinson, The Nag Hammadi Library (New York: HarperCollins, 1988).
    – Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson, eds, The Ante-Nicene Fathers (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1987 [1885]) (out of copyright and available free online)

Text – Alternative Names – Approx. Date – Provenance – Notes

ca. 400 BC – ca. AD 50

Historiographic

  • The Story of Ahikar – 500 BC – Jewish

 

  • Genesis – 400-200 BC – Jewish
  • Exodus – 400-200 BC – Jewish
  • Leviticus – 400-200 BC – Jewish
  • Numbers – 400-200 BC – Jewish
  • Deuteronomy – 400-200 BC – Jewish
  • Joshua – 400-200 BC – Jewish
  • Judges – 400-200 BC – Jewish
  • Samuel – 400-200 BC – Jewish
  • Kings – 400-200 BC – Jewish
  • Chronicles – 250 BC – Jewish
  • Ezra-Nehemiah1, 2 Esdras (Catholic); 1 Esdras (Orthodox) – 250 BC – Jewish
  • 1 Esdras 3 Esdras (Catholic); 2 Esdras (Russian Orthodox) 100 BC-AD 100 Jewish Parts of Ezra, Nehemiah, 2 Chronicles
  • 2 Maccabees 160 BC – Jewish (Egyptian)
  • 1 Maccabees 100 BC – Jewish (Hasmonean)
  • JubileesLesser Genesis; Book of Division (Ge’ez: Mets’hafe Kufale) – 150 BC – Jewish
  • 4QpsJuba-c? – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 3 Maccabees - 150 BC-AD 50 – Jewish

 

  • Ruth – 200 BC – Jewish
  • Esther – 200 BC – Jewish
  • Additions to Esther - 200-1 BC – Jewish
  • 4QPrEsthera-f ar (4Q550, 550a-e) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • Tobit – 200 BC – Jewish
  • Judith – 100 BC – Jewish
  • Letter of Aristeas - 200-1 BC – Jewish
  • Job – 250 BC – Jewish
  • Daniel 1-6 – 166 BC – Jewish

 

  • Apocryphal Genesis (1QapGen) (1Q20) – 200 BC – Jewish (Qumran)
  • Paraphrase of Genesis and Exodus (4QParaphrase of Genesis and Exodus) (4Q422) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QAdmonFlood (4Q370) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QText Mentioning the Flood (4Q577) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 1QNoah (1Q19, 19bis) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • Birth of Noah (4QBirth of Noaha-c ar) (4Q 534-536) – Jewish (Qumran)

 

  • 4QExposition on the Patriarchs (4Q464) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • Aramaic Levi 1QTLevi ar (1Q21); 4QLevia-f ar (4Q213-214b) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QapocrLevia-b? ar (4Q540-541) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QTJacob? ar (4Q537) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • Testament of Judah 3QTJud? (3Q7); 4QpapTJud? (4Q484) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QTNaph (4Q215) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QTJoseph ar (4Q539) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QText Concerning Rachel and Joseph (4Q474) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QTJud ar (4Q538) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QTQahat ar (4Q542) – Jewish (Qumran)

 

  • Jannes and Jambres - Jewish – frg.
  • Exagogue, Ezekiel the Tragedian – 200-101 BC – Jewish
  • 4QExod/Conq Trad (4Q374) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • Apocryphon of Moses (1Q29, 1Q29, 4Q225-227) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 2QapocrMoses? (2Q21) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4Qpap paraExod ar (4Q127) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • Apocryphon of Joshua (4QapocrJosha-b) (4Q378-379); (4QProphecy of Joshua (apocrJoshsup>c?)) (4Q522); (5QWork with Place Names (apocrJosh?)) (5Q9); (Mas apocrJosh (Mas1l)) – – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4Qpap paraKings et al. (4Q382) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 6Qpap apocrSam-Kgs (6Q9) – Jewish (Qumran)

 

  • 4QText Mentioning Zedekiah (4Q470) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 5QRule (5Q13) – Jewish (Qumran)

 

  • 4QHistorical Text H? (4Q322a) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QHistorical Text D (4Q332) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QHistorical Text E (4Q333) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QHistoricaI Text F (4Q468e) – Jewish (Qumran)

 

Legal

  • Exodus – 400-200 BC – Jewish
  • Leviticus – 400-200 BC – Jewish
  • Numbers – 400-200 BC – Jewish
  • Duteronomy – 400-200 BC – Jewish
  • Temple Scroll – Q19-21 – 200 BC – Jewish (Qumran)

 

  • Rule of the Community – Serek ha-Yaḥad (1QS + par) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • Damascus Document – CD + par. – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QMMT – 100 BC – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QapocrPent. A (4Q368) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QapocrPent. B (4Q377) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4Qpap cryptA Midrash Sefer Moshe (4Q249) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QHalakha B (+4QWays of Righteousnessa-b) (4Q264a, 4Q420-421) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QHarvesting (4Q284a) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QHalakha C (4Q472a) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 5QRule (5Q13) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QTohorot A (4Q274) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QTohorot Ba-b (4Q276-277) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QTohorot C (4Q278) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QFour Lots (4Q279) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QOrdinancesa-c (4Q159, 513-514) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QHalakha A (4Q251) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QMiscellaneous Rules (4Q265) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • Apocryphon of Moses – (1QDM (1Q22) + others) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QList of Netinim (4Q340) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QRebukes Reported by the Overseer (4Q477) – Jewish (Qumran)

 

Doctrinal and Moral

  • Jeremiah – 500-400 BC – Jewish
  • Ezekiel –  500-400 BC – Jewish
  • Isaiah – 500-400 BC – Jewish

 

  • Hosea – Book of the Twelve – 400-300 BC – Jewish
  • Joel – Book of the Twelve – 400-300 BC – Jewish
  • Amos – Book of the Twelve – 400-300 BC – Jewish
  • Obadiah – Book of the Twelve – 400-300 BC – Jewish
  • Jonah – Book of the Twelve – 400-300 BC – Jewish
  • Micah – Book of the Twelve – 400-300 BC – Jewish
  • Nahum – Book of the Twelve – 400-300 BC – Jewish
  • Habakkuk – Book of the Twelve – 400-300 BC – Jewish
  • Zephaniah – Book of the Twelve – 400-300 BC – Jewish
  • Haggai – Book of the Twelve – 400-300 BC – Jewish
  • Zechariah – Book of the Twelve – 400-300 BC – Jewish
  • Malachi – Book of the Twelve – 400-300 BC – Jewish

  • Proverbs – 300 BC – Jewish
  • Baruch – 150-100 BC – Jewish
  • Prayer of Manasseh – 200 BC – AD 70 – Jewish
  • Sirach – Wisdom of Ben Sira, Ecclesiasticus - 180 BC – Jewish
  • 4 Maccabees – 100 BC-AD 70 – Jewish
  • Wisdom of Solomon – 50 BC – Jewish
  • Pseudo-Phocylides – 100-1 BC – Jewish

 

  • 4QSapiential-Didactic Work A (4Q412) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QSapiential-Hymnic Work A (4Q426) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QSapiential Hymn (4Q411) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QBeatitudes (4Q525) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4Qlnstruction-like Composition B (4Q424) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • Treatise of the Two Spirits: 1QS III 13–IV 26 par 4QpapSc (4Q257) V-VI – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QSapiential Work (4Q185) Jewish – Qumran
  • 4QcryptA Words of the Maskil to All Sons of Dawn (4Q298) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QCommGen A-D (4Q252-254a) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QpapBibChronology ar (4Q559) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QTanḥ (4Q176) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QCommMal (4Q253a) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QTest (4Q175) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QList of False Prophets ar (4Q339) – Jewish (Qumran)

 

Apocalyptic and Eschatological

  • Book of the Watchers1 Enoch 1-36 – 250 BC – Jewish
  • Astronomical Book1 Enoch 72-82 – 250 BC – Jewish
  • Book of Giants – 200 BC – Jewish (Qumran)

 

  • 4QPrNab ar (4Q242) – 180 BC – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QpsDana-b ar (4Q243-244) – 180 BC – Jewish (Qumran)
  • Daniel – 166 BC – Jewish
  • 4QpsDanc ar (4Q245) – 165-100 BC – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QapocrDan ar (4Q246) – 165-100 BC – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QFour Kingdomsa-b ar (4Q552-553) – 165-100 BC – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4Q1-Historical Text A (4Q248) – 165-100 BC – Jewish (Qumran)
  • The Prayer of Azariah – After Daniel 3.23 – 165-100 BC – Jewish
  • The Song of the three children – After Daniel 3.23 – 165-100 BC – Jewish
  • Susanna – Daniel 13 – 165-100 BC – Jewish
  • Bel and the Dragon – Daniel 14 – 165-100 BC – Jewish

 

  • Book of Dreams – 1 Enoch 83-90 – 164 BC – Jewish
  • Epistle of Enoch – 1 Enoch 91-107 – 150-100 BC – Jewish

 

  • Instruction: 1Qlnstruction (1Q26); 4Qlnstructiona-e (4Q415-418, 418a); 4Qlnstructionf? (4Q418c); 4Qlnstructiong (4Q423) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • Book of Mysteries: 1QMyst (1Q27); 4QMysta-b (4Q299-300); 4QMystc? (4Q301) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • Rule of the Congregation 1QSa (1Q28a); 4Qpap cryptA Serekh ha-‘Edaha-i (4Q249a-i) – Jewish (Qumran)
    1QSb (1 Q28b)
  • War Rule 1QM (1Q33), 4QSefer ha-Milḥamah (4Q285). 4QWar Scroll-like Text B (4Q471); 4QMa-e (4Q491-495); 4QpapMf (4Q496), 4QpapWar Scroll-like Text A (4Q497); 1QSefer ha-Milḥamah (11Q14) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QTime of Righteousness (4Q215a) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QSelf-Glorification Hymn (4Q471b) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QVisions of Amrama-g? ar (4Q543-549) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QVisSam (4Q160) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • Apocryphon of Jeremiah 4Q383-390 – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 7QpapEpJer gr (7Q2) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • Pseudo-Ezekiel 4Q385-391 – Jewish (Qumran)
  • New Jerusalem 1Q32; 2Q24; 4Q554, 554a, 555; 5Q15; 11Q18 – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QEschatological Hymn (4Q457b) – Jewish (Qumran) – frg.
  • 4QMidrEschata-b, c?, d? (4Q174, 177-178, 182) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QAgesCreat A (4Q180) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QAgesCreat B (4Q181) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 11QMelch (11Q13) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • Apocryphon of Jeremiah 4QapocrJer A (4Q383); 4Qpap apocrJer B? (4Q384); 4QapocrJer Ca-f (4Q385a, 387, 388a, 389-390, 387a) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • Words of Michael 4QWords of Michael ar (4Q529). 6QpapUnclassified frags. ar (Words of Michael?) (6Q23) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QTime of Righteousness (4Q215a) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QWords of Judgement (4Q238) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4Qpap cryptA Prophecy? (4Q249p) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QEschatological Hymn (4Q457b) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QNarrative C (4Q462) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QEschatological Work B (4Q472) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QRenewed Earth (4Q475) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QMessianic Apocalypse (4Q521) – Jewish (Qumran)

  • Pesher Isaiah 4Qpap pIsac, 4QpIsac + papUnclassified frags (4Q163, 165, 515); 3QpIsa (3Q4); 4QpIsaa-b, d (4Q161=162, 164) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • Pesher Hosea 4QpHosa-b (4Q166-167) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • Pesher Micah 1QpMic (1Q14) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • Pesher Nahum 4QpNah (4Q169) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • Pesher Habakkuk 1QpHab – Jewish (Qumran)
  • Pesher Zephaniah 1QpZeph, 4QpZeph (1Q15, 4Q170) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • Pesher Psalms 1QpPs, 4QpPsa-b (1Q16, 4Q171, 173) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • Pesher on the Apocalypse of Weeks 4QPesher on the Apocalypse of Weeks (4Q247) – Jewish (Qumran)

  • Similitudes/Parables of Enoch – 1 Enoch 37-71 – 20 BC – Jewish
  • 2 Enoch – Slavonic Enoch – AD 1-70 – Jewish
  • Assumption of Moses – Revelation of Moses; Testament of Moses – AD 10-60 – Jewish

 

Astronomical and Calendrical

  • Astronomical Book – 1 Enoch 72-82 – 250 BC – Jewish
  • 4QZodiology and Brontology ar (4Q318) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QOtot (4Q319) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QOrdo (4Q334) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QHoroscope (4Q 186); 4QPhysiognomy/Horoscope ar (4Q561) – Jewish (Qumran)

 

  • 4QCal. Doc./Mishmarot A (4Q320) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QCal. Doc./Mishmarot B (4Q321) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QCal. Doc./Mishmarot C (4Q321a) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QCal. Doc./Mishmarot D (4Q325) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QMishmarot A (4Q322) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QMishmarot B (4Q323) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QMishmarot C (4Q324) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QMishmarot D (4Q324a) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QMishmarot F (4Q328) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QMishmarot G (4Q329) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QMishmarot H (4Q329a) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QMishmarot I (4Q330) – Jewish (Qumran)

 

  • 4QCryptA (4Q324) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QCryptA Lunisolar Calendar (4Q317) – Jewish (Qumran)

 

  • 4QCal. Doc. C (4Q326) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QCal. Doc. D (4Q394 1-2) – Jewish (Qumran)

 

Magical

  • 4QCurses (4Q280) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 5QCurses (5Q14) – Jewish (Qumran)

 

  • 4QIncantation (4Q444) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QShira-b (4Q510-511) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 6QpapHymn (6Q18) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 8QHymn (8Q5) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 11QapocrPs (11Q11) – Jewish (Qumran)

 

  • 4QExorcism ar (4Q560) – Jewish (Qumran)

 

Poetic and Liturgical

  • Lamentations – 400 BC Jewish
  • 4QapocrLam A (4Q179) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QLament A (4Q445) – Jewish (Qumran)

 

  • Song of Solomon – 250 BC – Jewish

 

  • Psalms – 200 BC – Jewish
  • Psalm 151 – 100 BC – Jewish
  • Psalms 152-155 – 100 BC – Jewish (Syriac Peshitta)
  • 4QPse (4Q87); 11 QPsa-b (11Q5-6) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QNon-Canonical Psalms A-B (4Q 380-381) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • Psalms of Solomon – 100-1 BC – Jewish
  • Hodoyot (1QH) (1Q35; 4Q427-432) Jewish – Qumran

 

  • 4QWorks of God + 4QCommunal Confession (4Q392 + 393) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QApocr. Psalm and Prayer (4Q448) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QHodayot-like Text A (4Q433) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QpapHodayot-like Text B (4Q433a) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QBarkhi Nafshia-e (4Q434-438) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QLament by a Leader (4Q439); 4QNarrative I (4Q469) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QHodayot-like Text C (4Q440) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QHodayot-like Text D (4Q440a) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QSapiential Hymn (4Q411) – Jewish (Qumran)

 

  • Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice 4QSirShabb (4Q400-407; 11Q17; Mas 1k) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • Prayer of Enosh 4Q369; 4Q499 – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QpapPrQuot (4Q503) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QDibHama,c (4Q504, 506) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • PrFetes (1Q34, 4Q507-509, 505) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QLiturgical Work A (4Q409) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QpapRitMar (4Q502) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 1QS i 11–iii 12 – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 1QSb (1Q28b) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QBera-e (4Q286-290) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QPurification Liturgy (4Q284) – Jewish (Qumran)
  • 4QRitPur A (4Q414); 4QpapRitPur B (4Q512) – Jewish (Qumran)

 

  • 1QHymns (1Q36) – Jewish (Qumran) – frg.
  • 1QHymnic Composition? (1Q39) – Jewish (Qumran) – frg.
  • 3QHymn (3Q6) – Jewish (Qumran) – frg.
  • 4QWork Containing Prayers A (4Q291 ) – Jewish (Qumran) – frg.
  • 4QWork Containing Prayers B (4Q292) – Jewish (Qumran) – frg.
  • 4QWork Containing Prayers C (4Q293) – Jewish (Qumran) – frg.
  • 4QIndividual Thanksgiving A (4Q441) – Jewish (Qumran) – frg.
  • 4Qlndividual Thanksgiving B (4Q442) – Jewish (Qumran) – frg.
  • 4QPersonal Prayer (4Q443) – Jewish (Qumran) – frg.
  • 4QPoetic Text A (4Q446) – Jewish (Qumran) – frg.
  • 4QPrayer A (4Q449) – Jewish (Qumran) – frg.
  • 4QPrayer B? (4Q450) – Jewish (Qumran) – frg.
  • 4QPrayer C (4Q451) – Jewish (Qumran) – frg.
  • 4QHalleluyah (4Q456) – Jewish (Qumran) – frg.
  • 4QPrayer Concerning God and Israel (4Q471c) – Jewish (Qumran) – frg.
  • 4QpapHymns/Prayers (4Q499) – Jewish (Qumran) – frg.
  • 4QpapBened (4Q500) – Jewish (Qumran) – frg.
  • 4QapocrLam B (4Q501) – Jewish (Qumran) – frg.
  • 4QHymnic or Sapiential Work B (4Q528) – Jewish (Qumran) – frg.
  • 4QpapBened (6Q16) Jewi- Jewish (Qumran) – frg.
  • 11QHymns<sup>a</sup> (11Q15) – Jewish (Qumran) – frg.
  • 11QHymns<sup>b</sup> + XQText B (11Q16) – Jewish (Qumran) – frg.

 

Philosophical

  • Ecclesiastes – 200 BC – Jewish
  • 4 Maccabees – 63BC-AD120 – Jewish

 

  • On the Creation, Philo – Jewish
  • Allegorical Interpretation (I-III), Philo – Jewish
  • On the Cherubim, Philo – Jewish
  • On the Birth of Abel, Philo – Jewish
  • Worse is Wont to Attack, Philo – Jewish
  • On the Posterity of Cain and His Exile, Philo – Jewish
  • On the Giants, Philo – Jewish
  • On the Unchangeableness of God, Philo – Jewish
  • On Husbandry, Philo – Jewish
  • Concerning Noah’s Work as a Planter, Philo – Jewish
  • On Drunkenness, Philo – Jewish
  • On Sobriety, Philo – Jewish
  • On the Confusion of Tongues, Philo – Jewish
  • On the Migration of Abraham, Philo – Jewish
  • Who is the Heir of Divine Things?, Philo – Jewish
  • On Mating, Philo – Jewish
  • On Flight and Finding, Philo – Jewish
  • On the Change of Names, Philo – Jewish
  • On Dreams, Philo – Jewish
  • On Abraham, Philo – Jewish
  • On Joseph, Philo – Jewish
  • On the Life of Moses (I-II), Philo – Jewish
  • The Decalogue, Philo – Jewish
  • The Special Laws (I-IV), Philo – Jewish
  • On the Virtues, Philo – Jewish
  • On Rewards and Punishments, Philo – Jewish
  • Every Good Man is Free, Philo – Jewish
  • On the Contemplative Life, Philo – Jewish
  • On the Eternity of the World, Philo – Jewish
  • Flaccus, Philo – Jewish
  • Better Hypothetica: Apology for the Jews, Philo – Jewish
  • On Providence (frgs 1, 2), Philo – Jewish
  • On the Embassy to Gaus, Philo – Jewish
  • Questions and Answers on Genesis (I-III), Philo – Jewish
  • Concerning the World, Philo – Jewish
  • Fragments, Philo – Jewish

 

ca. AD 50 – 300

Historiographic

  • Jewish War, Josephus – AD 75 – Jewish
  • Antiquities, Josephus – AD 94 – Jewish
  • Against Apion,  Josephus – AD 97 – Jewish
  • Life, Josephus – AD 99 – Jewish

 

  • Lives of the Prophets – AD 1-100 – Jewish
  • Biblical Antiquities, Pseudo-Philo – Liber Antiquitatum Biblicarum – AD 1-100 – Jewish
  • Joseph and Aseneth – 100 BC-150 AD – Jewish
  • History of Joseph – Jewish
  • Prayer of Joseph – Jewish
  • Testament of Job – 100 BC-AD 200 – Jewish
  • Testaments of the 12 Patriarchs – AD 100 – Christian

 

  • Abot – Avot; Pirkei Avot; Ovos; Ethics of the Fathers – AD 300 – Jewish

 

    Christian Gospels
  • Gospel of Mark – AD 70 – Christian
  • Gospel of Matthew – AD 90 – Christian
  • Gospel of Luke – AD 90 – Christian
  • Gospel of John – AD 100 – Christian
  • Gospel of the Ebionites – AD 100 – Christian – frg.
  • Gospel of the Egyptians – AD 100 – Christian – frg.
  • Gospel of the Hebrews – AD 100 – Christian – frg.
  • Gospel of the Nazorean – AD 100 – Christian – frg.
  • Gospel of Thomas – AD 120 – Christian
  • Gospel of Peter – AD 150 – Christian
  • Egerton Gospel – Papyrus Egerton 2 – AD 150 – Christian
  • Diatesseron Tatian – AD 170 – Christian
  • Gospel of Nicodemus – AD 100-200 – Christian
  • Epistle of the Apostles – AD 150 – Christian
  • Gospel of Batholomew – AD 150-250 – Christian
  • Gospel of the Lord Marcion – AD 140 – Christian (Marcionite)
  • Gospel of Judas – AD 150-250 – Christian (Gnostic)
  • Gospel of Mary [Magdalene] – AD 150-250 – Christian (Gnostic)
  • Book of Thomas the Contender – AD 150-250 – Christian (Gnostic)
  • Apocryphon of James – AD 150-250 – Christian (Gnostic)
  • Report of Pilate to Caesar – AD 150-250 – Christian (Gnostic)
  • Report of Pilate to Tiberius – AD 150-250 – Christian (Gnostic)

 

  • Infancy Gospel of Thomas – AD 140-170 – Christian
  • Infancy Gospel of James – AD 140-170 – Christian
  • The Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew – Infancy Gospel of Mary – Christian
  • Gospel of the Nativity of Mary – Christian
  • Arabic infancy gospel – Prob. late – Christian

 

    Christian Acts
  • Acts of the Apostles – AD 100 – Christian
  • Acts of John – AD 150-200 – Christian
  • Acts of Peter (incl. The Mystery of the Cross) – AD 150-200 – Christian
  • Acts of Andrew – AD 150-200 – Christian
  • Acts of Paul (incl. The Acts of Paul and Thecla) – AD 150-200 – Christian
  • The Acts of Thomas – AD 200-250 – Christian
  • Pseudo-Clementine Homilies – AD 100-300 – Christian
  • Pseudo-Clementine Recognitions – AD 100-300 – Christian
  • The Acts and Martyrdom of Andrew – Christian
  • The Acts of Andrew and Matthew – Christian
  • The Acts of Barnabas – Christian
  • Martyrdom of Bartholomew – Christian
  • Acts of John the Theologian – Christian
  • History of Joseph the Carpenter – Christian
  • Book of John Concerning the Death of Mary – Christian
  • Passing of Mary – Christian
  • Acts and Martydom of Matthew (incl. The Martydom of Matthew) – Christian
  • Acts of Peter and the Twelve Apostles – Christian
  • Acts of Philip – Christian
  • Report of Pontius Pilate to Tiberius – Christian
  • Giving Up of Pontius Pilate – Christian
  • Death of Pilate – Christian
  • Acts of Thaddaeus – Christian
  • Consummation of Thomas – Christian

 

  • The Martyrdom of Perpetua and Felicity – AD 203 – Christian
  • Acts of the Scilitian Martyrs – Christian
  • Letter of the Martyrs of Lyons – Christian

 

Legal

  • Mishnah – Mishna – AD 200 – Jewish
    incl: Zeraim (“Seeds”)
    Moed (“Festival”)
    Nashim (“Women”)
    Nezikin (“Damages”)
    Kodashim (“Holy things”)
    Tohorot (“Purities”)

 

  • Tosefta – AD 200 – Jewish

 

Doctrinal and Moral

Apocryphon of Ezekiel AD 30-95 Jewish

1 Thessalonians Paul AD 52 Christian
Galatians Paul AD 54-57 Christian
Philippians Paul AD 54-57 Christian
Philemon Paul AD 54-57 Christian
1 Corinthians Paul AD 54-57 Christian
2 Corinthians Paul AD 57 Christian
Romans Paul AD 58 Christian

Discourse to the Greeks concerning Hades Josephus AD 90 Jewish

1 Peter Peter AD 60 Christian
Hebrews AD 60 Christian
1 Clement Clement of Rome AD 95 Christian
1 John John AD 100 Christian
2 John John AD 100 Christian
3 John John AD 100 Christian

Didache AD 80-120 Christian
Papias AD 100 Christian frgs.

Colossians Pseudo-Paul AD 100 Christian
Ephesians Pseudo-Paul AD 100 Christian
2 Thessalonians Pseudo-Paul AD 100 Christian
1 Timothy Pseudo-Paul AD 100 Christian
2 Timothy Pseudo-Paul AD 100 Christian
Titus Pseudo-Paul AD 100 Christian
3 Corinthians Pseudo-Paul AD 100-150 Christian
James Pseudo-James AD 100 Christian
Jude Pseudo-Jude AD 100 Christian

Ephesians Ignatius AD 108 Christian
Philadelphians Ignatius AD 108 Christian
Magnesians Ignatius AD 108 Christian
Romans Ignatius AD 108 Christian
Smyrnenas Ignatius AD 108 Christian
Trallians Ignatius AD 108 Christian
Polycarp Ignatius AD 108 Christian

Marcion Antitheses AD 130 Christian

Barnabas Pseudo-Barnabas AD 130 Christian

Philippians Polycarp AD 130 Christian

2 Peter Pseudo-Peter AD 135 Christian

2 Clement Pseudo-Clement AD 150 Christian

Mary at Neapolis Pseudo-Ignatius AD 100-200 Christian
Maria the Proselyte Pseudo-Ignatius AD 100-200 Christian
John the Apostle Pseudo-Ignatius AD 100-200 Christian
2 John the Apostle Pseudo-Ignatius AD 100-200 Christian
Hero, a deacon of Antioch Pseudo-Ignatius AD 100-200 Christian
Antiochans Pseudo-Ignatius AD 100-200 Christian
3rd Epistle Pseudo-Ignatius AD 100-200 Christian
Tarsians Pseudo-Ignatius AD 100-200 Christian
2 Ephesians Pseudo-Ignatius AD 100-200 Christian
Philippians Pseudo-Ignatius AD 100-200 Christian
Polycarp (II) Pseudo-Ignatius AD 100-200 Christian
The Virgin Mary Pseudo-Ignatius AD 100-200 Christian

Martyrdom of Polycarp Letter of the Smyrneans AD 150 Christian

First Apology Justin Martyr AD 150-160 Christian
Second Apology Justin Martyr AD 150-160 Christian
Dialogue with Trypho Justin Martyr AD 150-160 Christian
Fragments Justin Martyr AD 150-160 Christian
Discourse to the Greeks Justin Martyr AD 150-160 Christian
Hortatory Address to the Greeks Justin Martyr AD 150-160 Christian
On the Sole Government of God Justin Martyr AD 150-160 Christian
On the Resurrection Justin Martyr AD 150-160 Christian

Octavius Minucius Felix AD 150 Christian
Address to the Greeks Tatian AD 160 Christian
Fragments Hegesippus AD 165 Christian
Fragments Theodotus AD 170 Christian – Valentinian
Ad Autolychum Theophilus AD 170 Christian
A plea for the Christians Athenagoras AD 175 Christian
On the Resurrection of the Dead Athenagoras AD 175 Christian

Homily on the Passion Melito AD 170 Christian

Against All Heresies Epiphanius Panarion Christian

Prayer of Jacob AD 100-200 Jewish

Against Heresies Irenaeus AD 180 Christian
Demonstration of the Apostolic Preaching Irenaeus AD 180 Christian
Fragments Irenaeus AD 180 Christian

Refutation of All Heresies Hippolytus Elenchos AD 180-230 Christian
Compendium Hippolytus AD 180-230 Christian
Treatise of Christ and Antichrist Hippolytus AD 180-230 Christian
Commentary on Daniel Hippolytus AD 180-230 Christian
Commentary on the Song of Songs Hippolytus AD 180-230 Christian
Homily on David and Goliath Hippolytus AD 180-230 Christian
Blessings of Isaac, Jacob and Moses Hippolytus AD 180-230 Christian
Against the Heresy of Noetus Hippolytus AD 180-230 Christian
Easter Homily Hippolytus AD 180-230 Christian
fragments Hippolytus AD 180-230 Christian

Theophilus of Antioch AD 185 Christian

To the Newly Baptized Clement of Alexandria AD 182-202 Christian
Exhortation to the Heathen Clement of Alexandria AD 182-202 Christian
The Instructor Clement of Alexandria Paedagogus AD 182-202 Christian
Miscellanies Clement of Alexandria Stromata AD 182-202 Christian
Who is the Rich Man that Shall Be Saved? Clement of Alexandria AD 182-202 Christian

Patience Tertullian AD 197-220 Christian
Prayer Tertullian AD 197-220 Christian
Spectacles Tertullian AD 197-220 Christian
The Apparel of Women Tertullian AD 197-220 Christian
To the Martyrs Tertullian AD 197-220 Christian
The Apology Tertullian AD 197-220 Christian
On Idolatry Tertullian AD 197-220 Christian
The Shows Tertullian De Spectaculis AD 197-220 Christian
The Chaplet Tertullian De Corona AD 197-220 Christian
To Scapula Tertullian AD 197-220 Christian
Tertullian Ad Nationes AD 197-220 Christian
An Answer to the Jews Tertullian AD 197-220 Christian
The Soul’s Testimony Tertullian AD 197-220 Christian
A Treatise on the Soul Tertullian AD 197-220 Christian
The Presciption Against Heretics Tertullian AD 197-220 Christian
Against Marcion Tertullian AD 197-220 Christian
Against Hermogenes Tertullian AD 197-220 Christian
Against the Valentinians Tertullian AD 197-220 Christian
On the Flesh of Christ Tertullian AD 197-220 Christian
On the Resurrection of the Flehs Tertullian AD 197-220 Christian
Against Praxeas Tertullian AD 197-220 Christian
Tertullian Scorpiace AD 197-220 Christian
Against All Heresies Tertullian AD 197-220 Christian
On Repentance Tertullian AD 197-220 Christian
On Baptism Tertullian AD 197-220 Christian
On Prayer Tertullian AD 197-220 Christian
Tertullian Ad Martyras AD 197-220 Christian
Of Patience Tertullian AD 197-220 Christian
On the Pallium Tertullian AD 197-220 Christian
On the Veiling of Virgins Tertullian AD 197-220 Christian
To His Wife Tertullian AD 197-220 Christian
On Exhortation to Chastity Tertullian AD 197-220 Christian
On Monogamy Tertullian AD 197-220 Christian
On Modesty Tertullian AD 197-220 Christian
On Fasting Tertullian AD 197-220 Christian
Tertullian De Fuga in Persecutione AD 197-220 Christian

Epistle of Mathetes to Diognetus Mathetes AD 200 Christian

Didascalia Catholic Teaching of the Twelve Apostles and Holy Disciples of Our Saviour AD 200-220 Christian

First Principles Origen De Principiis AD 220 Christian
Against Celsus Origen Contra Celsus AD 220 Christian
On Prayer Origen AD 220 Christian
Exhortation to Martyrdom Origen AD 220 Christian
Dialogue with Heraclides Origen AD 220 Christian
On Passover Origen AD 220 Christian
To Origen Africanus AD 220 Christian
To Africanus Origen AD 220 Christian
To Gregory (I) Origen AD 220 Christian
To Gregory (II) Origen AD 220 Christian
Commentary on John Origen AD 220 Christian
Commentary on Matthew Origen AD 220 Christian

The Trinity Novatian AD 235-240 Christian

To Donatus Cyprian AD 250 Christian
To Quirinis: Testimonies Against the Jews Cyprian AD 250 Christian
On the Dress of Virgins Cyprian AD 250 Christian
The Unity of the Catholic Church Cyprian AD 250 Christian
The Lord’s Prayer Cyprian AD 250 Christian
Works and Almsgivings Cyprian AD 250 Christian
Mortality Cyprian AD 250 Christian
To Demetrian Cyprian AD 250 Christian
The Advantage of Patience Cyprian AD 250 Christian
Jealousy and Envy Cyprian AD 250 Christian
To Fortunatus Cyprian AD 250 Christian

The Instructions Commodius AD 250-260 Christian
Apologetical Poem Commodius AD 250-260 Christian

Symposium Methodius AD 270 Christian

Creation of the World Victorinus AD 270 Christian
Commentary on Revelation Victorinus AD 270 Christian

The Act of Peter AD 150-250 Christian – Gnostic
The Wisdom of Jesus Christ AD 150-250 Christian – Gnostic
The Book of the Great Initiatory Treatise Heavenly Topography AD 150-250 Christian – Gnostic
Books of Jeu AD 150-250 Christian – Gnostic
Pistis Sophia AD 150-250 Christian – Gnostic
Apocryphon of John AD 150-250 Christian – Gnostic
Hypostasis of the Archons AD 150-250 Christian – Gnostic
On the Origin of the World AD 150-250 Christian – Gnostic
The Paraphrase of Shem AD 150-250 Christian – Gnostic
Gospel of Truth AD 150-250 Christian – Gnostic
Treatise on the Resurrection AD 150-250 Christian – Gnostic
Tripartite Tractate AD 150-250 Christian – Gnostic
Eugnostos the Blessed AD 150-250 Christian – Gnostic
Second Treatise of the Great Seth AD 150-250 Christian – Gnostic
Teachings of Silvanus AD 150-250 Christian – Gnostic
Testimony of Truth AD 150-250 Christian – Gnostic
Discourse on the Eighth and Ninth AD 150-250 Christian – Gnostic
Prayer of Thanksgiving AD 150-250 Christian – Gnostic
Valentinian Exposition AD 150-250 Christian – Gnostic
Three Steles of Seth AD 150-250 Christian – Gnostic
Prayer of the Apostle Paul AD 150-250 Christian – Gnostic
Gospel of Philip AD 150-250 Christian – Gnostic
Letter of Peter to Philip AD 150-250 Christian – Gnostic
Acts of Peter and the Twelve Apostles AD 150-250 Christian – Gnostic
Teachings of Addeus the Apostle AD 150-250 Christian – Gnostic
Correspondence of Jesus and Abgar AD 150-250 Christian – Gnostic
Correspondence of Paul and Seneca AD 150-250 Christian – Gnostic
Prayer of the Apostle Paul AD 150-250 Christian – Gnostic
Letter of Pontius Pilate to the Roman Emperor AD 150-250 Christian – Gnostic
Narrative of Joseph of Arimathea AD 150-250 Christian – Gnostic
John the Evangelist AD 150-250 Christian – Gnostic

 

Apocalyptic and Eschatological

  • Apocalypse of Zephaniah – 100 BC-AD 70 – Jewish frg.
  • Apocalypse of Abraham – AD 80 – Jewish
  • Life of Adam and Eve – 100 BC-AD 300 – Jewish

 

  • Ascension of Isaiah – AD 70 – Christian
  • Revelation of JohnApocalypse of John – AD 96 – Christian
  • 4 Ezra – 4 Esdras (Catholic); 3 Esdras (Russian Orthodox) – AD 100 – Christian

 

  • Testament of Abraham – AD 1-200 – Jewish

 

  • Ladder of Jacob – AD 100 – Jewish
  • First Apocalypse of Elijah – 100 BC – AD 100 Jewish
  • 2 Baruch – Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch – AD 100-120 – Jewish
  • 3 Baruch – Greek Apocalypse of Baruch – AD 70-150 – Jewish
  • 4 Baruch – Paraleipomena Ieremiou, Things omitted from the Prophet Jeremiah (Greek); The Rest of the Words of Baruch (Ethiopic) – Jewish

 

  • Testament of Isaac – AD 100-200 – Jewish
  • Testament of Jacob – AD 100-200 – Jewish

 

  • Apocalypse of Peter – AD 130 – Christian
  • The Shepherd Hermas – AD 100-150 – Christian

 

  • Sibylline Oracles – 100 BC-AD 300 – Jewish and Christian

 

  • History of the Rechabites (I. Rechabite Text (Chs 7-9) AD 1-150 Christian; II. Apocalypse (Chs. 3-6, 10-15a); III. Christian Additions (Chs. 2, 15b-18); IV. Jesus’ Conquest of the Devil (Chs. 19-21); V. Testament of Zosimus (Chs. 1, 22)) – Jewish and Christian
  • Apocalypse of Sedrach – AD 150-500 – Jewish
  • Testament of Adam – AD 1-300 – Jewish

 

  • Greek Apocalypse of Ezra – AD 150-900 – Jewish
  • Syriac Apocalypse of Ezra – AD 150-900 – Jewish
  • Fifth and Sixth Books of Ezra – AD 100-200 – Jewish
  • Ethiopic Apocalypse of Ezra – AD 150-900 – Jewish
  • Vision of the Blessed Ezra – AD 300-600 – Jewish
  • Revelation to Ezra – AD 150-900 – Jewish

 

  • Apocalypse of Adam – AD 200-300 – Christian (Gnostic; Sethian)
  • 2nd Apocalypse of James – AD 120-180 – Christian (Gnostic)
  • 1st Apocalypse of James – AD 180-250 – Christian (Gnostic)
  • Apocalypse of Paul – AD 150-250 – Christian (Gnostic)
  • Revelation of Paul – Christian (Gnostic)
  • Vision of Paul – AD 388 – Christian (Gnostic)
  • Apocalypse of Peter – Christian (Gnostic)

 

Astronomical and Calendrical

  • Treatise of Shem – 60 BC-AD 150 – Jewish

Magical

  • Testament of Solomon – AD 200-300 – Christian

Poetic and Liturgical

  • Odes of Solomon – AD 100 – Christian

14 Responses to “Early Judeo-Christian texts”

  1. john shuck said

    Many, many thanks for this!

  2. Mike said

    You missed Paul’s “Ephesians” in this list (I had to check)

  3. ntwrong said

    Oooh yeah. I’d deleted him from the genuine Paulines, but forgot to put him in the pseudo-Paulines. Maybe I’ll get rid of the genuine/pseudo distinction altogether…

  4. Excellent post! I’m not sure how I missed it! Thanks.

  5. Brandon said

    The dates on the gospels, is that the current consensus? I thought they still had a date range for the dates of those particular books?

  6. N. T. Wrong said

    Brandon – The canonical gospel dates are fairly representative of the current consensus. But, as I say at the top of the list, when it comes to dating these works – nobody really knows.

  7. Geoff Hudson said

    All this lot often?

  8. NT Wrong? said

    Ad fontes.

  9. steph said

    Oh seeing those blinking so called ‘consensus’ dates for the canonical gospels really does make my blood boil!

  10. NT Wrong? said

    Majority rules, Steph. Who needs reasons.

  11. steph said

    me

  12. steph said

    and as you know the majority of the world believed the world was flat and the majority of Americans believe in…

  13. I try to keep separate copies of Q, J, E, P, D, L, and M on my night stand. I prefer to read them in a combination of Elvish and Klingon after my Mountain Dew wears off from playing hours of World of Warcraft with my online help-meet.

  14. NT Wrong? said

    Drew – OMG! – You’re missing T (Levine’s ‘Transjordan’ source).

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